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Top 10 Contributions by Indians in Science and Math:

#1 Zero

The introduction of zero (0) to mathematics, which stood for “nothing”, was the biggest contribution of Brahmagupta. He also explained how to find the cube and cube root of an integer and gave rules facilitating the computation of squares and square roots.

#2 Decimal System

Aryabhata was the first person to say that the Earth is spherical and it revolves around the sun & stated the correct number of days in a year is 365. He also gave the formula (a + b) 2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab. Further, he worked on the place value system using letters to signify numbers and stating qualities.

The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra.

#3 Rules for negative numbers

Brahmagupta also demonstrated rules for working with negative numbers. He referred to positive numbers as fortunes and negative numbers as debts. He wrote down rules that have been interpreted by translators as: “A fortune subtracted from zero is a debt,” and “a debt subtracted from zero is a fortune”.

#4  Fibonacci number:

The Fibonacci numbers were first described in Indian mathematics, as early as 200 BC in work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of Sanskrit poetry formed from syllables of two lengths.

#5 Raman Effect: 

The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) reports: "change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. The phenomenon is named for Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who discovered it in 1928. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman effect

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